Are the oldest
ancient Finnish names Liuti* > Liuco > Liuko – Liukko?
Ancient Finnish name Liukko – name used as a place name and later as a surname in
More information: Seppo Liukko homepage selection of articles Finnish prehistoric and historic (European`s and Finland`s Origins):
Seppo Liukko homepage
Contents of Seppo Liukko’s homepage (under, in English 1-7) and summary of history of name Liukko:
THE FINNISH ORIGIN OF EUROPEANS (18.000
– 16.000 BC.)
2. THE FINNISH IN FINLAND AFTER ICE AGE (8700 BC-)
3. FINNISH KALEVALA CULTURE
PERIOD (even 7000 – 5000 years old)
4. HISTORY OF ANCIENT FINNISH NAME LIUKKO (person- and place names even 2000- 4000 years old)
5. HISTORY OF LIUKKO- HOUSE IN VESILAHTI (house name and surname even 600- 1500 years old)
6. THE KALEVA CONNECTION OF
7. ANCIENT NAME LIUKKO – PLACE NAME AND SURNAME
© Seppo Liukko
1. THE FINNISH ORIGIN OF EUROPEANS, Seppo Liukko 2005
The Finnish origins of Europeans
– Since Ice Age (and after LGM)
(so called fair skinned people in the northern areas of Alps).
Origins of Finns – Continuity theory and linguistic theory (European`s Uralic> Finnish Continuity Theory from Ice Age / - LGM).
The Finnish roots of Europeans 18000- 5000 B.C. hypothesis and theory (Seppo Liukko 2005).
The original European languages are the Finnish related languages which were born through merger of languages during two refuges of The Ice Age 18.000 –> 12.000 B.C. After The Ice Age in the refuge of Ukraine (Cultures of Kostenkin - Swidry - Hamburg) large game hunters and (refuge of Iberia) Bask the language spoken by deer hunters in the coastal Atlantic area (Cultures of Solutren – Magdalen).
The large areas of large game hunters from Atlantic to
Urals were areas of the Finnish related also during 12000- 5000 B.C.during the era of Finnish and Finnish language related until the
Neolithic revolution. The area of Finnish related languages shrank from the
west starting from 5000 B.C. when the language spoken in the area changed from
Finnish related to Germanic. The genetics of the area are still Finnish
related. According to to the modern information the Finnish related comb
ceramic language areas spread still in 2000 B.C. from Prussian to Urals, the
link to the Finnish Museum of
history in English (The
National Board of Antiquities): Museovirasto comb ceramic age.
Large game become distinct with the Central Europe becoming forested in 12000 B.C. and then amongst others the mammoth become distinct in Europe (existed in the islands of Wrangel until 7000 B.C.)
The culture of the hunters continued to be Finnish language speakers as smaller and more isolated hunter-Fisher cultures. The change in language was slow and all the Finnish related populations understood each other until the Neolithic revolution completely changed the language situation in the areas north of the Alps compared to the situation from the beginning of the comb ceramic era about 5000 B.C.
The large Finnish related areas in Europe (5000-2000 B.C.)
The Neolithic revolution took place slowly in the areas between the Black Sea and Alps, spreading to the areas of the hunters which took up farming. The farming culture spread first to the comb ceramic areas and the language change from Finnish too place later. New farming culture spread in Europe which was first Finnish language speakers (language changed) Cord Wared culture. However, the hunter languages slowly changed into Indoeuropean languages, which first become Germanic, Baltic and Slavic.
The language change amongst European hunters
The language change took place in Central Europe 5000 - 2000 B.C. The change from hunting to framing took place everywhere where farming was possible and only after that happened the before mentioned language changes (to the language of the livelihood in question). Indoeuropean language (e.g. ancient Germanic-Baltic-Slavic) spread to Europe only starting about 5500 B.C. during the spread of the farming culture and after that. The indoeuropean population counted at the most 20% of the population in the areas of the hunter populations in Europe.
The origins of Europeans are origins of Finnish hunters
About 80% of the genetics of Europeans is based on the Finnish hunter people genetics. Therefore it is likely that a language change has taken place because the before mentioned Germanic, Baltic and Slavic languages are Indoeuropean languages which does not mean that they are genetically so. Therefore what is noticeable that the moderns speakers of these languages are not genetically the from “indoeurope” (indo= South-east) - the living areas of Finnish related people since 2000 B.C.
The language change did not take place in Finland and in Estonia, but in other parts of Russia, Sweden and the Southern Baltic's the language change started around 2000 B.C. and is still happening. The border of Finnish language speakers has moved south continuously for the last 5000 years.
The language change did not take place in northern Estonia and in Finland and in the beginning not is the forest areas of Russia or in the Baltic - Prussian area, excluding the southern parts of Sweden. Even in these areas the language border has moved north between 2000 B.C – 1600 A.D. The language change in these areas the Finnish language speaking people changed their language to Indoeuropean Slavic and Germanic languages still changing in a slow pace. This development can be clearly seen historically, especially in Russia.
2. THE FINNISH IN FINLAND AFTER ICE AGE:
The Finnish (language speakers) have according to the continuity theory lived in Finland continually for 10700 years.
These Finns came from Swidry, Hamburg and Kundan cultures. The people of stone age have been hunter-fisher-gatherer people. Until 1000 A.D. the Finns were called ”finns and scridefinns or häme culture in finnish ” people. During stone age ”old häme” culture period the Germanic farmer people arrived in Finland. During the farming-burn beaten land farming history period the Germanic people arrived to Finland through Baltic - Estonia (Viro) about 2000 B.C. The number of new arrivals (migrations) was relatively small compared to the number of original habitants.
The new arrivals (migration) must have been Finnish related ancient
Germanic people. This is because the number of
arrivals was small and the Finnish and Germanic genetics are still very
similar. Mathematically this is only possible when the arrivals have been
originally before mentioned Finnish related hunters which have changed their
language to Germanic language around 2500 - 3000 B.C. The Germanic people have
mainly Finnish related genes
(See more Seppo Liukko homepage ).
3. FINNISH KALEVALA CULTURE PERIOD (Kalevala time started even 6000-7000 years ago)
The Finnish national epic book “Kalevala” contains traditional knowledge about Kalevala period which was in Finland as early as in 4000 B.C. until 1600 A.D.(The Kalevala cult was strongly opposed in 17th Century Finland.).
The Kalevala period started in the Finnish areas of Europe as early as 7000 years ago, in the comb ceramic areas that already existed about 5000 - 3000 B.C. The oldest parts of The Kalevala epic is the earliest in the world according to researchers and therefore the Kalevala is also the oldest epic (book), even older that the Sumerian Gilgames - epic (about 2700 B.C.)
There was a so called pre- Kalevala period in Finland already during so called typical comb ceramic era (4200 B.C) which is before the actual Kalevala- language period.
Kalevala rhyme or Kalevala language is especially clearly defined and developed means of communications dating already 1000- 2000 B.C.. This type of communications were used in Finland and at the same time also by the Baltic Finnish related people. The use of burn beaten land as a farming method arrived in Finland before the Bronze age and the farming started in Finland during the Kalevala period so these periods took place simultaneously (Liukko- name is the ancient Kalevala- name). Because of this, the Finnish Kalevala rhyme got a new younger layer which reflects the arrival of farming culture. The Kalevala poetry changed its form also later when Christianity arrived and beacause of the pressures caused by Christianity. (see: 17th Century time of purity in Christianity and Kalevala - religion was banned in Finland – mainly South-Western Finland ).
It can be concluded that the Kalevala period of Finnish related people is the basis of Finnish culture.
The slow spreading of Cord ware culture/farming in Finland
The movers to Finland were Cord Ware Liuti- Leute- or Liud - people, who arrive to farm land by burn beaten land method in South -Western Finland. Amongst these Liuti - Leute – or Liud – ancient indoeuropean- / pre-Germanic people (liuti*), Liuco – Liuckhardt person names have remainded placenames in the oldest burn beaten farming areas in Finland.
When the ancient (pre-) Germanic people mixed with ancient häme- people there was no language change in Finland (and iu- diftong). The häme (sämä)- people started to use names Liuco, Liuko and Liukko. These names moved from the South- Western coast to inner land along with burnt beaten land farming through Salo/ Uskela – Kokemäki / Ulvila rivers by about 500 B.C. - 500 A.D.
4. HISTORY OF ANCIENT FINNISH NAME LIUKKO (place name and surname 2000-4000 years):
(Part of research conducted in 2007 on the history of name Liukko)
The etymology of name Liukko and the wide use of name Liukko in place names proves that Liukko is a particularly old name.
It is possible that name Liukko has already been formed in the oldest farming areas in Finland as early as at the end of the Comb Ceramic period. During the Kiukainen culture or the bronze age Germanic Cord Ware people arrived to practice burnt beaten land farming.
The ancient Germanic Liuti / Leute- people used a name Liuco as a person’s name and the name Liuko and Liukko is still used in place names in the modern times – possibly these names are 4000 years old. Leute (loite) means a person or people. These (names of persons) Liuco or Liukko people started the burnt beaten land farming about 2000 B.C. Based on research the place name Liukko is the oldest place name taken from a person’s name and possibly even the oldest surname?
For an unusual
surname there are many Liuko or Liukko based placename in Finland. There are
over 300 of them. Liukko placenames are located in old burnt beaten
land farm areas or life stock farming areas which are usually close to hills or
swamps. Historically it is significant that these places are located in the
oldest faming areas and secondly because there has been no people using name
Liukko living close to these areas for 500 - 1000 years, yet there are still
place names with Liukko combined with endings such as -pelto, -suo, -mäki,
-vuori or –talo etc.
(See: Map Liukko- placenames of South- Western Finland burnt beaten land farming and history of Liukko name place names in questions: link to Seppo Liukko -> Liukko- nimen esihistoria tutkimusraportti).
5. HISTORY OF LIUKKO- HOUSE IN VESILAHTI
The only know place name with people named Liukko living there in South – Werstern Finland is Liukko-house is located close to Tampere and is called Vesilahti’s Liukko house. This house has been inhabited by people called Liukko possibly from iron age until modern time (There seems to be no other ”original” Liukko named people living in the oldest South- Western farming area based on this research). The Liukko house in Vesilahti has existed fro about 1500 years, since established field -farming started in Finland.
It is quite surprising when looking at the name etymology and maps of place names that there is pagan period name used in Finland that is likely to be 2000- 3000 years old. How has this kind of unusual name that was already taken into use during burnt beaten land farming period has remained all through the era of Swedish rule all the way to modern times as a place name, house name and as a surname. The name Liukko seem to be this kind of name. If you read through the rest of the articles of in the Seppo Liukko homepage you will find out the answer.
The name Liukko is linked to peasant history during the Middle Ages in Finland 1100- 1500 A.D.
Liukko – the historically sinificant events of that era were e.g. the peasant rebellion against the Swedish rule and non-Finnish speaking noble people. The important name coming up in these events are peasant names 1156 AD Lalli, 1438 David and 1595-97 Jaakko Ilkka of Nuijasota (peasants` revolts). These people took part in actions to defend their own Finnish independent peasant culture against new foreign powers. The Nuijasota had broader significance that the previous history writing suggests. The people taking part in Nuijasota 1595-1597 included almost all independent peasants (including peasants with large houses) from Pohjanmaa, Häme and Savo all the way to Karjala (Karelia).
The Liukko house in Vesilahti is the real ”original house” of the Liukko peasant history. People using name Liukko have been know to been living thee at least for 600 years and possibly even for 1500 years. The Liukko- house was the largest peasant house in the area because it contained large forest areas and areas in the wilderness, amongst others in Ruovesi, Rautalampi and Kyrö.
Through these forest areas and areas in the wilderness Liukko named people moved to Savo and Karjala (Karelia). When the Savo people expanded their living areas in the 16th Century also some Liukko's moved back to west, from 1542 and inhabiting the now free areas in the wilderness. Also from 17th Century during the Savo expansion Liukko-names expanded also into other parts of Finland. (see; link map permission 317/MML/08, Seppo Liukko, and map; Liukko- placenames of Finland 2007).
In the new era from 17th Centrury the Vesilahti Liukko house was big house (one manttaali - a specific tax area) with stables and a ruustholli (an estate under obligation to equip a cavalryman).
The Liukko house has exited in Vesilahti possibly as long as 1500 years (it is a house name in Järvenranta village).
The Liukko of Vesilahti surname has been in continuous use for 600 years until modern times (in the beginning Järvenranta or Liukko or combination of these two names).
6. THE KALEVA CONNECTION OF NAME LIUKKO:
The name Liukko is included in Kalevala type poetry called loitsu (spell) (SKVR.) The old Kalevala poetry also include the name Liukko. The Kalevala poetry is at least 3000 years old ancient Finnish culture. These Kalevala type poetry collection included the total of about 110 000 rhymes (SKS).
The later connection of name Liukko to Kalevala – The Liukko’s of the Vesilahti house recorded of created Kalevala rhyme Elina’s killing poem from 15th Century. This poem was stored in the Liukko house for 400 years, unti Elias Lönnrot recorded it to Kalevala Epic’s sister work, a collection called ”Kanteletar” in 1840.
The Kalevala based pagan religion was practiced in Finland widely until 17th Century era of puritan Christianity. The Liukko house stored the Kalevala rhymed poem of Elina’s killing for particular reasons and it is stored also e.g. in Kanteletar-collection. The neighboring house inhabitant called Olavi Luikko (a version of name Liukko based on name etymology) was sentenced to death based on the witch hunt laws in 1649 as he was consider to be a witch.
The Luikko and Liukko families in Vesilahti were even in the 17th century some kind of ”Kalevala soothsayers families” – Some of this kind of soothsayer families were know to have fled the Christiand puritanic period to Savo- Karjala (Karelia) and Inkeri, where most of the Kalavala poetry was later collected.
7. ANCIENT NAME LIUKKO – PLACE NAME AND SURNAME
Liukko is based on the researche explained previously at least 2000 years old.
The name Liukko is possibly one of the oldest place names and surnames in
Finland. Whether the name Liukko is as old as 3000 - 4000 years old depend on
finding out whether burnt beaten land farming was in fact started already 4000
Was bunt beaten land farming started as the name etymology suggest by Leute (loite) people or did it take place later during Iron Age around 0 A.D.
If older Germ. Liud- / Liuti -> person name Liuco - names arrived to Finland already when burnt beaten land farming started, then the Liukko place names could be 4000 year old.
If the Germanic based Leute- people person name Liuckhardt / Liuco - people has arrived to Finland during the Iron Age when farming was becoming widely used around 0 A.D. the Liukko name would be almost 2000 year old as a place name.
In either case, the name Liukko is amongst the oldest place names that can be traced back to a person’s name and also one of the oldest surnames in Finland (there will be more information on this, once the second part of history of name Liukko part B (is finished…).
Seppo Liukko 2005 – 2007 ,© Seppo Liukko