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Monissa paikoissa on kyllä tietoa ja ymmärrystä, että mikä tuo si-nivelen dislokaatio on ja mitä se aiheuttaa. Mutta sen hoidosta ja korjauksesta ei näköjään pahemmin tiedetä. Olen tänne kerännyt parhaat linkit.

Kotimaisia
Links From Around the World

Kotimaisia:

Fysiatri Jussi Timgrenin lantiosivu
Täällä selitetään hyvin lantion kiertymä, eli suoliluun kiertymä, eli SI-nivelen toimintahäiriö sekä mihin kaikkeen se vaikuttaa!

Kuntohoitaja Timo Maarasen sivut
Täällä hyvää kuvausta kokonaisvaltaisesta hoitotavasta, SI-nivel ja lantion alue mukaanluettuna, sekä hyviä yksittäisiä selvityksiä muista hoidetuista vaivoista.

Suomen Selkäliiton Nikama lehti 1/2006
Sivulla 14 fysiatri Markku Turusen kirjoittama juttu SI-nivelestä. Tuossa samassa lehdessä myös erään reumapotilaan parantumiskertomus sivulla 22. Se kertomus loppuu kerrassaan loistavaan lauseeseen!

Kiropraktikko Kari-Pekka Mäihäniemi kertoo Piriformis-syndroomasta:
"Piriformis on yksi lonkan ulkokiertäjistä pakaralihaksen alapuolella. Kymmenellä prosentilla ihmisistä iskiashermo kulkee tämän lihaksen läpi, lopulla yhdeksälläkymmenellä prosentilla ihmisistä tämä hermo kulkee lihaksen alapuolella. Piriformissyndrooma johtuu piriformislihaksen kiristymisestä pakaralihasten alapuolella. Erilaiset lantion alueen mekaaniset toimintahäiriöt, kuten SI-nivelongelma, ylikuormittavat tätä lihasta."

YLE Terveys, Pilates kehonhallintamenetelmä
"Ryhtiongelmia syntyy yleensä siitä, että lantio on kallistunut taakse- tai eteenpäin. Silloin ei ole mahdollista käyttää vatasalihaksia oikein."

Fysi ry: Kasvuikäisen selkä tutkittava ajoissa! - Lasten selkäsairauksiin erikoistunut ortopedi LKT Timo Yrjönen Ortonista
"Huonolla ryhdillä tarkoitetaan yleensä asentoa, jossa olkapäät kaartuvat eteenpäin, kaularangan ja lannerangan kaaret ovat korostuneet ja lantio on kallistunut eteenpäin. – Alle 10-vuotiailla tällainen kumaraselkäisyys on harvinaista, mutta se on suhteellisen tavallinen puberteetin kasvupyrähdyksessä."

Kiropraktikko Matts Holmström
"Lantionkiertymä (SI-nivelen lukkiutuma), josta johtuen jalat näyttävät eripituisilta. Oireina ovat yleinen jäykkyys ristiselässä esim. noustessa istuma-asennosta seisomaan sekä pahana ischias-tyyppisenä säteilykipuna reiden takaosaan."

Eräs irrallinen vanha artikkeli:
Kuntohoitaja, podiatriseen fysioterapiaan erikoistunut Leena Byckling

Turun Sanomat 8.12.2002
Turkulainen kansanparantaja Erkki Aaltonen ja lääkäriasema Pulssin fysiatri ja kokenut koululääketieteen edustaja Birgitta Virsiheimo haastattelussa.

Urheilija Olli Toivolan urheilusivuilla manintoja hänen SI-nivelen ongelmastaan...
WWW.OLLITOIVOLA.COM
Otteita päiväkirjasta:
14.11. ma: "...selvisi että lantion asento on ihan ketuillaan. Jaloissa ainakin sentin pituusero ja alaselästä ne ongelmat juontavat.."
18.11. pe: "Se on nyt varmaa että muitten fysioitten diagnoosit selästä on olleet hataria ja siellä ei mitään ole vialla. SI-nivel oli ihan ketuillaan..."
30.11. ke: "se (jalkojen) pituusero tulee nyt siitä SI-nivelestä."
21.12. ke: "Lääkäri oli alun alkajaankin ihmetyksissään siitä että voiko SI-nivel lähteä paikoiltaan??"
"No, Doc L passitti minut aluksi röntgeniin, jossa myös otettiin alaraajojen pituuserokuvat. "
"ALARAAJAN PITUUSEROKUVA: vasen alaraaja saadan n. 10mm oikeaa pidemmäksi. SI-nivelet kuvautuvat säännöllisinä. "
Ja mitä tähän sanoo Olli itse: "Ei takuulla ollut tuollaista pituuseroa viime vuonna. Ei helvetissä."

Darren Higgins, Fysi ry:n Fysio 2/2005:
”On hyvä muistaa, että kipu esiintyy usein muualla kuin siellä, missä itse ongelma on, ja että kyse on ennen kaikkea toiminnan ongelmasta. Kun jonkin alueen toiminnassa on ongelmia, toiset alueet joutuvat tekemään kahta enemmän työtä tilannetta kompensoidakseen ja saattavat kipeytyä tästä ylisuorittamisesta. Hyvänä esimerkkinä tästä voidaan pitää SI-nivelen toimintahäiriöitä. 60- 80% SI-nivelen oireiluista aiheutuu vastakkaisen puolen toimintahäiriöistä.

Suomen Osteopaattiliitto
"Osteopatiassa katsotaan lantion olevan selkärangan perustusta, aivan kuten rakennuksessa on kivijalka. Pienikin kallistuma tai kiertymä aiheuttaa jännitteitä koko rangan alueelle häiriten kehon toimintaa ja siirtäen jännitystä luustolle, sidekudoksille ja lihaksille. "

Osteopatia
"Lantion katsotaan osteopatiassa edustavan kehon perustusta, tukipohjaa joka kallistuneena ja/tai kiertyneenä aiheuttaa kompensaatiomuutoksia eli ryhtihäiriöitä. Nämä muutokset ilmenevät lantiosta ylöspäin selkärankaan, sekä myös alaspäin alaraajoihin. Kun keho vääntyy, siitä aiheutuu selkä-, niska-, ja raajanivelten vaivoja eri puolelle kehoa. Kompensaatiot ovat tärkeitä, koska keho haluaa pitää aivot, näköelimet ja korvan tasapainoelimet vaakatasossa, jotta ihminen pystyisi kaikesta huolimatta havainnoimaan normaalisti. Kun esim. lantio on kiertynyt, joutuu jokainen selkänikama kiertymään samassa suhteessa, jotta pystyasento voidaan ylläpitää. Näitä kutsutaan kompensaatiomuutoksiksi."

Selkäasema
"Toistuvasti sijoiltaan menevän s-i nivelen syy löytyy korjaamatta jätetystä tai huonosti korjatusta nilkasta, koska lantio on kallistunut eikä korjaannu ennen kuin jalan asentovirhe korjataan. S-i nivelen korjaus on helppo tehdä."

SSS-STT: Ingberg satsaa kaiken avausheittoon
"Keihäänheittäjä Mikaela Ingbergin puolitoista kuukautta jatkuneiden pohjevaivojen syy löytyy alaselästä. Ingbergin mukaan pohje on saatu hieronnalla toimintakuntoon, mutta alaselkä ja oikea jalka oireilevat edelleen. - Ilmeisesti ns. SI-nivel alaselässä on huonossa asennossa ja hermosto ei pääse toimimaan niin kuin pitäisi."

Fysiokeskus Itäkunto
"Usealla ihmisellä lantio kallistuu tai kiertyy, josta seuraa selkä-, niska- ja olkapääkipuja, koska ranka yrittää korjata epätasapainon. Joskus seuraa myös jalan häiriöitä, kuten jalkaterän virheasentoja, lonkka-, polvi- tai nilkkanivelkipuja, tai jalan häiriö aiheuttaa lantioon tai rankaan häiriöitä."

LuontaisInfo
"Dorn-menetelmä on Saksassa jo yli 30 vuotta tunnettu terapia, jonka sen perustaja Dieter Dorn on kehittänyt vanhasta kansanparannuskeinosta. Se on luonnonmukainen tehokas nikamien ja nivelten korjausmenetelmä. Monet kärsivät selkävaivoista jotka johtuvat lukkiutuneista selkänivelistä ja meridiaaneista. Seurauksena voivat olla monenlaiset vaivat, kuten päänsärky, huimaus, sydänrytmihäiriöt ja muut. Perussyynä on useinkin ”eri-pituiset jalat” ja siitä aiheutuva lantioiden vino/väärä- asento ja selkänikamien väärä asento. Dorn-menetelmällä korjataan nämä vika-asennot ja kivut katoavat. Vaivattomalla/helpolla korjausliikkeellä saadaan ”eri-pituiset jalat” kivuttomasti ja vaarattomasti korjattua ja sen jälkeen kun lantio on oikeassa asennossa, helpommin ja pysyvämmin muut nikamat oikeisiin paikkoihinsa. Dorn-menetelmä on hyvin hellävarainen ja kivuton."

Fysiatria.net
Fysiatria.net-sivujen uusi SI-sivu!

REUMAPOLVI, UÄ-, CT- JA MRI-DIAGNOSTIIKKA, Tuija Järviluoma
"SI nivelestä peräisin olevan kivun alkuperä on usein vaikeasti paikannettavissa. Kipu voi säteillä alaraajaan dorsaalisesti iskiaskivun tavoin, usein myös posteriorisista fasettinivelistä tuleva kipu simuloi SI nivelen kipua. SI nivel on anatomisen sijantinsa vuoksi vaikeasti kliinisesti tutkittavissa. Nivelen rasitustestit usein aikaansaavat liikettä myös muissa kivulle herkissä lähialueen rakenteissa, kuten posteriorisissa fasettinivelissä, lannerangassa tai lonkassa. SI nivelestä peräisin oleva kipu voi säteillä alaraajaan, tyypillisesti reiden takapinnalle, harvemmin sääreen. Tyypillisesti SI nivelen kipu säteilee myös nivuseen. - Varhaisvaiheen taudissa ja tutkittaessa muita SI nivelen tauteja röntgentutkimus on usein normaali tai muutokset ovat epäspesifejä ja vaikeasti tulkittavia."

Suomen hevos- ja koirahierojat ry
"Ole varovainen, jos SI-nivel on lukkiutunut voi hevosen tasapaino pettää ja se voi jopa kaatua."

Sosternet-keskustelua
"Kerrottakoon vielä se, että keväällä mulla todettiin vino lantio eli SI-nivel on lantiosta sijoiltaan, juuri oikealla puolella."

Perhe.org-keskustelua
"Mullaki oli joku vuosis itte selkä aina kipee... Selvis et mulla oli vasemmalta puolelta SI-nivel pois paikaltaan... Fysiatri laitto sen takasi paikoilleen ni ei ole sen koommin pvaivannu enää..."

MS Crossroads-keskustelua
"Jos vika on ollut tuossa, niin voi olla ollut huimausta, päänsärkyä jne... koska kun tämä joku Si- nivel tai jotain on pois paikaltaan, niin koko ranka kiemurtelee miten sattuu -> ongelmia sinne sun tänne(atlakseenkin)."

Siinä ne kotimaiset sitten olikin. Eipä ole häävisti tuosta asiasta tietoa saatavilla. Tällainenkin löytyi, mutta enpä tiedä mitä täällä on opetettu ja oppiko kukaan mitään: LIKES: 23.05.2002 SI-nivelen merkitys selkävaivoissa

From Around the World

From WWW you can find hundreds of articles about SIJD. Here are the best of them:

Mechanics and treatment of sacroiliac joint, by Richard DonTigny
This document explains a lot what is SIJD.

Spine & Sacroiliac Specialists
"It is important to make this distinction because herniated lumbar discs do not always cause pain. In fact, many peoples have herniated discs that have never caused pain and are found when a test is done for some other reason! There is no reason to operate on a disc that is not causing any problem."
"Sacroiliac pain is due to subluxation of the joint."

The effect of sacroiliac dysfunction on the musculoskeletal system, Alan B. Lippitt, M.D.

Richard DonTigny (PT), tutkimuksia
A lot of good stuff!

Richard DonTigny, member of Advisory board, World Congress on Low Back Pain and the Pelvis

DonTignys's SIJD-Foorum. There are thousands of messages from patients loking for information: Sacroiliac Foorum Thousands of messages from hundreds of different SIJD-patients around the world"

Joseph L. Shaw M.D. Back and Neck Care Center, Topeka, Kansas, USA.
This Article that 98% of Low Back Pain patients had SIJD.

DonTigny's self help instructions

Mark Hellner's self help instructions, Sacroiliac Joint Correction, By Marc Heller, DC; Dynamic Chiropractic, December 17, 2005, Volume 23, Issue 26

Healing Researh Center -Excellent link!
"The most common subluxation occurs when one ilium moves upward or downward."
This is a great site!

This article also from DonTigny's Kalindra-site:
DeRosa C 2001 Functional anatomy of the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joint.
In: Proceedings from the 4th – Montreal proceedings Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain. Montreal, Canada

Richard DonTigny, PT, Critical analysis of the sequence and extent of the result of the pathological release of self-bracing of the sacroiliac joint
"Here is the mind blower. In 1982 the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons met in Toronto specifically to address LBP. They established criteria for testing and for the interpretation of those tests. They assumed that the SIJ (= Si-nivel) was so strong as to be immune to injury through minor trauma and paid scant attention to it. They also reported that 'in spite of thorough examination they could establish a firm diagnosis less than 15% of the time.

What they did not seem to realize is that when you use their recommended tests and interpret those test in the recommended manner that you will be compelled to miss the diagnosis over 85% of the time! It's not that they are not an intelligent group, but they just have not considered all of the evidence. Boorstin once commented that "The chief obstacle to discovery is the illusion of knowledge." People are reluctant to learn what they think they already know. This is willful ignorance. Instruction is of scant value. You must instill some doubt to stimulate investigation."

Yumeiho-manual therapy
Here is some excellent material. Hopefully soon there will be more...
"The theory of the YUMEIHO method is grounded on the fact, that over 95% of people have had incorrectly positioned pelvis since their birth."
(Heidän teoriansa mukaan virheet tulivat syntymäprosessissa ja ne johtuvat äidin lantion alueen virheasennoista, eli lähinnä Si-nivelen dislokaatiosta. Kun odottavan äidin lantion virhetilat korjattiin, niin syntyneistä lapsista 98% oli virheettömiä.)

Baby Malpositions: Implications for Birth, by Kmom
"When the pelvis and sacro-iliac area are put into better alignment and the soft tissues released, the baby can resume its most optimal position and usually turns. However, if the pubic bone misalignment continues, the woman is at risk not only for baby malposition, but also significant and debilitating pubic symphysis damage during birth from common obstetric interventions and positions."

Maya Abdominal Massage
"When the pelvis is misaligned it can also affect the position that the baby will find it comfortable to lie in during pregnancy."

ABC Physical Therapy
"We believe that the sacroiliac joint is the number one cause of low back pain, and that it is the most significant joint in the entire body. Held together by strong ligaments, the sacroiliac joint connects the upper half of our body to the lower half. Tremendous forces are generated through this joint when we stand, stoop, and lift. During a low back injury the sacroiliac joint gets “dislocated” ('goes out') or misaligned. Tremendous, often excruciating pain is created when these ligaments are sprained or torn. This can happen through lifting, falling onto your buttocks, when you suffer an auto accident, or even during sustained bouts of sitting or driving. When you say, "my back went out", what has really happened is that your sacroiliac joint is out of alignment."

ABC Physical Therapy
"During my 11 years working as a physical therapist, I have found that the sacroiliac joint is involved or "out of alignment" in nearly every patient that has been referred or presented to me with the complaint of low back pain. "

"Sacroiliac joint dysfunction or sprain is rarely given as a diagnosis and not considered as a relevant cause of low back pain. As a physical therapist, current thought believes that only about 10-15% of patients suffering from low back pain will have a component that involves the sacroiliac joint complex. MD’s, Radiologists, Orthopedist and Neurosurgeons rarely consider the sacroiliac joint complex a factor, either. Some surgeons believe this joint doesn’t even move."

ABC Physical Therapy
Stuff about history of SIJD.

UltraFitness, by DR. Ironside
"The sacrum and the ilium form the sacroiliac joint. If this joint is stuck or misaligned, it will not be able to move in its normal pattern. This will create pull on the muscles that act around it. Some muscles will compensate by becoming overactive. For example the piriformis will start to contract or be overworked trying to help the joint. This will be felt as a pain in the hip or butt. The piriformis muscle is not alone in compensating for lack of movement of the sacroiliac joint. Any of the muscles that attach through the pelvis can be affected"

Firstchoise Healthcare Lisa Mancuso, M.D., Hugh S Thompson, M.D, George A. Bitting, M.D.
"The sacroiliac joint is a commonly overlooked cause of lower back pain. Recent studies have found that Sacroiliac dysfunction was the cause, or a major component, in a high percentage the cases of mechanical back pain. Dysfunction in the sacroiliac joint not only causes back pain but also may mimic pain seen in lumbar disc herniation or a facet joint with pain referred into the buttock and thigh."

Protonics
"Many patients who experience chronic knee pain, back pain, hip bursitis, sciatica and similar postural problems, suffer from a pelvic instability. Since the pelvis is in a unique position to contribute to the position and function of numerous parts of the body, especially the spine and the femur, an anterior tilt of the pelvis has undesirable consequences throughout the entire lumbo-pelvic-femoral chain.
When the pelvis is anteriorly rotated, the sacrum is tipped forward and the rest of the spine has no choice but to follow suit. Rather than fall over forward, the body compensates for this excessive forward tilting of the lower spine by tilting backward at some point higher up the chain and thereby creates a large increase in the amount of curvature of the lower back (lordosis and scoliosis). This deep curvature of the back can create various problems including muscle spasms, pinched nerves (sciatica) and possible damage to the intervertebral discs."

Postural Restoration Institute
"The left pelvis is anteriorly tipped and forwardly rotated. This directional, rotational influence on the low back and spine to the right, mandates compulsive compensatory movement in one or more areas of the trunk, upper extremities and cervical-cranial-mandibular muscle. The greatest impact is on rib alignment and position, therefore influencing breathing patterns and ability. It is very possible that respiratory dysfunctions, associated for example with asthma or daily, occupational, repetitive, work positions, can also influence pelvic balance and lead to a compensatory pattern of an anteriorly tipped and forwardly rotated pelvis on the left."

Medical Library (John P. Fulkerson, M.D. and Elizabeth A. Arendt, M.D. )
""Miserable malalignment" syndrome can also include an anteriorly rotated pelvis, which is associated with a compensatory internal rotation of the femur.7,8 Internal femoral rotation produces dynamic valgus knee alignment and alters the motor/muscle activity of the limb by increasing the demand on the vastus lateralis and iliotibial band. These muscle groups, now more anteriorly aligned on the malrotated limb, act as the primary extensors of the knee. This pelvifemoral dysfunction can also be associated with further compensatory alterations up the kinetic chain with an increase in lumbar lordosis, an increased in thoracic kyphosis, cervical extension and a forward head."

Peak Running free issue, Chris Maund, B.S., sivu 7

Bowen Therapy
"The first thing to consider is the possibility that the legs are not the same length, in which case the pelvis may have twisted to accommodate the condition, and the patient may have had their shoes built up to correct the unbalance."

Sports Injury Clinic - John Williams, registered Osteopath and Sports Injury Therapist
"These joints can often get stuck or in some cases one half of the pelvis can glide forwards or backwards, which is often referred to as a twisted pelvis. When this occurs it often irritates the Iliolumbar ligament which results in Inflammation."

Pelvic mechanics
"It is this writer's clinical observation over 20 years that a characteristic of low back pain associated with a dysfunction of the pelvic ring is its asymmetry. - As the piriformis muscle plays a major role in stabilizing the pelvis and is an important muscle traversing the SIJ, it is not surprising that it is strained at times when the pelvis is dysfunctional."

Vladimir Djuric, M.D. Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
"Although sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) may be present in as many as 40% of individuals who experience back, buttock, and leg pain, it is frequently overlooked as a cause of these common symptoms."

Interventional Techniques in The Management of Chronic Spinal Pain: Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines
"The sacroiliac joint is accepted as a potential source of low back and/or buttock pain with or without lower extremity pain (222-233)."

Greg Spindler, LMT
"So why is the sacrum tipped to one side? 9 times out of 10, the illiums aren’t functioning in the same plane or are not balanced. One side (usually the left) is rotated forward and then the other side is rotated back. This creates the unstable pelvic condition while under weight-bearing stress. As a result, the sacrum is off-center and tipped which initiates a direction for the scoliotic compensation (the curvature) to begin."

Robert Schleip, Published in ROLF LINES, May 1996
"the practitioner discovers a pelvic torsion in the client. After successfully unwinding it (with usually either direct or indirect technique) the pelvis does indeed look more balanced on the table. But when the client stands up, the trunk and spine are now suddenly less good balanced than before; sometimes an underlying scoliotic pattern becomes more apparent. A pelvic torsion is usually defined as an intersegmental pelvic pattern in which one ilium is tilted more anterior in relation to the other. Another way to say it is that one ilium is tilted more anterior and one more posterior in comparison with each other."

Jeffrey Burch, Published in Massage Therapy Journal, Summer 2002
"We will also consider sagital plane variation in pelvic orientation. Rotation around the hip joints in the sagital plane yields anterior and posterior tilt of the pelvis. We name the top of the pelvis sitting forward or anterior of the bottom of the pelvis as "anterior tilt". Similarly, the top of the pelvis sitting back of, or posterior to the bottom of the pelvis is "posterior tilt."

Lumbosacral Spine
"Pelvic rotation determines the amount of curve in the spine (Fig. 3-2). Anterior rotation of the pelvis creates an increase in the lumbar curve, and all other curves are increased to keep the body in gravitational balance. Posterior rotation of the pelvis creates a flattening of the lumbar curve and a decrease of the thoracic and cervical curves. As is discussed in this chapter, many muscular factors contribute to the amount of pelvic rotation."

The Diagnosis And Treatment Of The Sacro-Iliac Joint As A Cause Of Low Back Pain — The Management Of Pain In The Butt Arnold Graham Smith, M.D., F.R.C.S, April, 1999
"There is very little written about the Sacro-Iliac joint (S.I.) in medical books on backache. As Orthopaedic and Neurosurgical residents are not taught to consider S.I. dysfunction as a cause of back pain, it is not surprising that surgeons know little of diagnosis and treatment. "

Back Pain and Sacroiliac Joint Syndrome Michael Guthrie
"It is a typical complaint in our field of therapy: “My back hurts all the time.” While sources of back pain are numerous, SIJS is a major source of hip & back pain that is difficult for physicians to diagnose and treat."

Therese Southworth, PT, Physical Therapy for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction, page 22
"SI sprains or malalignment can lead to joint mobility and stability problems, a condition referred to as SI dysfunction."
"Researchers theorize that pain associated with the SI is the result of the bone on one side of the joint sliding out of position, thereby forcing the muscles and ligaments that keep the bones aligned to overcompensate, which in turn causes pain. The longer a malalignment exists, the more likely muscles are to spasm and tissue damage to occur. In some cases, the pain associated with malalignment can travel beyond the area of the SI joint into the lower back or leg."

Wolf Schamberger, M.D., FRCP(C); Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Specialist, Medical Director, Burnaby Healthy Heart Program
"-rotational malalignment of the pelvis (Fig. 1) - resulting from excessive anterior or posterior rotation of an innominate (pelvic bone) relative to the sacrum; "anterior" and "posterior" refer to the direction of movement of the upper part of the innominate in the sagittal plane -an upslip of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) (Fig. 2) - referring to a direct upward movement of an innominate relative to the sacrum, with shortening of the leg noted in sitting/lying "

JOHN T. COTTINGHAM, STEPHEN W. PORGES, KENT RICHMOND
"Standing pelvic tilt is defined as the angle of inclination made by the line between the ASIS and the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and its intersection with the horizontal plane"

Joseph D. Kurnik, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, September 1, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 18
"More specifically, the ilium can rotate anteriorly, superiorly, posteriorly or inferiorly. The posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) is the point of reference for such motion."

Applied Biomechanics
"if the pelvis becomes distorted, due to a fall or postural stress, the “foundation” of the spine can become tilted. The spine has to compensate, in order for the upper body to be carried upright. Clearly, some of the lumbar muscles have to do extra work, and some of the joints have to take extra loading. The result is extra wear & tear. Sooner or later something has to give. Although an attack of back pain may occur suddenly, for no apparent reason, usually there have been minor niggles or aches for some time."

Wolf Schamberger, M.D.
"Patients presenting for cardiac rehabilitation are no different from the general population in that 80 to 85% are out of alignment."

BackChamp
"The pelvis is the foundation of your spine and skeletal frame. It is notoriously unstable and prone to tilting or twisting so that it no longer sits in its natural, healthy and horizontal position. In fact the whole body is thrown out of kilter and one leg becomes longer than the other. "

MyoRehab
"The pelvis is the foundation of the spine, that is, the base upon which the spine rests. This base for the spine can affect the rest of your torso all the way up to the head. It also plays an important role as an anchor for many muscles of the lower limbs. When the pelvis becomes dysfunctional, besides causing low back and hip pain, it can cause pain and dysfunction of your shoulders, neck and head."

MyoRehab
"When your hips or more specifically your pelvis is out of level, everything that rests upon it will be out of alignment. This is frequently the case for people with chronic neck and shoulder pain who receive treatment that gives only temporary relief. One possible explanation for this is that misalignment of the pelvis has been overlooked or insufficiently treated."

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction in Athletes, P. Gunnar Brolinson, DO, FAOASM, FAAFP, Albert J. Kozar, DO, and and Greg Cibor, DO
"The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a common source of low back pain in the general population. Because it is the link between the lower extremities and the spine, it sustains even higher loads during athletic activity, predisposing athletes to a greater probability of joint dysfunction and pain. "

Kim Christensen, DC, DACRB, CCSP, CSCS, Dynamic Chiropractic, November 3, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 23
"The role of the sacroiliac (SI) joint holds a sometimes confusing, perhaps even controversial place in the health care literature. A dysfunctional SI joint is often ignored or dismissed as an insignificant feature of musculoskeletal health. However, SI subluxation is a legitimate syndrome, separate from the type of low back pain associated with disc conditions, lumbago, or sciatica. In fact, SI joint dysfunction has been implicated as a common cause of back pain in more than 30 percent of children. Additionally, as the link between the spine and the lower extremities, the SI joint "sustains even higher loads during athletic activity, predisposing athletes to a greater probability of joint dysfunction and pain."

The SI joint also can give rise to buttock and leg pain, which is often difficult to differentiate from other causes of low back pain. Furthermore, dysfunction of the SI joint may be a contributing factor in failed back surgery syndrome."

Peter Fysh, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, June 5, 1995, Volume 13, Issue 12
"Because sacroiliac joint subluxation is frequently accompanied by a physiological short leg, frequent falls by a young infant while walking or running should be an indication for the child's chiropractor to evaluate the position, alignment and length of the lower extremities"

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
Anatomiaa, oireita, diagnooseja ja ohjeita.

PubMed: Mierau DR, Cassidy JD, Hamin T, Milne RA., Sacroiliac joint dysfunction and low back pain in school aged children, 1984
"In this study, we found a high percentage of school aged children had sacroiliac dysfunction and low-back pain."

PubMed: Sacroiliac subluxation: a common, treatable cause of low-back pain in pregnancy, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York.
"Back pain was spontaneously reported to the physician by 23 women in 23 pregnancies. Eleven of the 23 women met diagnostic criteria for sacroiliac subluxation."

Martha A. Simpson, D.O., M.B.A., TWO TYPES OF SHORT-LEG SYNDROME REQUIRE DIFFERENT TREATMENTS, Family Medicine
"While the legs -- when measured from fixed points -- are the same length, one leg may appear shorter when the patient is evaluated in a laying or sitting position. This is usually caused by a tilt in the pelvic bone, or a hip or sacroiliac joint."

Marc Heller, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, March 10, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 06
Juttua ja kuvia SI-virheen korjaamisesta.

Kim D. Christensen, D.C., D.A.C.R.B., C.C.S.P., Rehab and the Sacroiliac Joint
"SI joint dysfunction has been implicated as a common cause of back pain in more than 30% of children. 3 Additionally, a study involving the correction of SI joint dysfunction in patients presenting to a chiropractic center over one day found an incidence of 57% for SI joint dysfunction."

Independence Back Institute
"Treatment for the sacroiliac joint problems can be very effective. The first line of treatment following an accurate diagnosis is usually made through an attempt to put the joint back, as it belongs. This can be done by a physician, but is often done by a physical therapist. Stretching and maneuvering the patient can also reposition the joint. "

Physical Therapy, Volume 79, Nro 12, December 1999.
"The results of this study indicate that a procedure using handheld calipers and an inclinometer does not provide reliable measurements of the difference in the angles of inclination of the innominates in people suspected of having SIJ dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint symmetry tests do not appear to be useful for detecting whether one innominate is rotated relative to the other innominate. Therapists should reconsider the usefulness of evaluation techniques that rely on the assessment of the anatomical symmetry of bony landmarks of the innominates."

Moore Orthopadeic Clinic
"What is sacroiliac dysfunction?
Sacroiliac dysfunction means that one of both of the sacroiliac joints move improperly. They may be too stiff, allowing no movement, or too lax, allowing too much movement. Improper mechanics leads to increased stress through the joints. Inflammation and pain are the result. This is also known as sacroilitis.

What are the conditions that cause pain in this Si-joint area?
Spondylolisthesis – Anterior slipping of one vertebrae on another.
Spondylolysis – Stress fracture of the spine.
Sciatica – Herniated disc causing nerve compression.
Inflammatory Arthritis – Such as ankylosing spondylitis.
Infection"

SI Dysfunction.com
"SI joint dysfunction may be wholly responsible for the low back pain syndrome and/or may be contributory to low back pain in concert with other pathology of the lumbar spine."

Hughston Health
"the sacroiliac (SI) joint (Fig. above and below) is a common but frequently overlooked source of low back pain. "

Spinal Universe
"Degenerative arthritis (e.g. osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis) and injury are two common causes of SI joint dysfunction and pain."

The Voice, Florida Newspaper
"SI joint dysfunction itself may be responsible for the low back pain syndrome and/or may be contributory to low back pain along with pathology from the lumbar spine. It can be acute in occurrence or chronic and recurrent. The sacroiliac joint is a risk of injury (as is the lumbar spine) when the trunk is flexed forward coupled with side bending and rotation. This results in non-neutral SI and lower lumbar mechanics."

The Alexander Barrie System of Pelvic Studies
"When pelvic correction was performed, leg length equalised, tension in the spine eased and elsewhere. The pelvis is the foundation of the skeletal frame so that when subluxation/dysfunction occurs (so very common) an immense strain is placed on the spinal segments especially lumbar."

The Ongley Back, Neck and Joint Pain Center
"The sacroiliac joint has a small range of motion, and when the joint is at the limit of its range no great force is needed to damage its ligaments. Once the ligaments of the low back and pelvis become incompetent, instability results."

Cibulka, Michael T. MHS/PT, OCS ; Sinacore, David R. PhD, PT; Cromer, Gregory S. MS, PT ; Delitto, Anthony PhD, PT, Unilateral Hip Rotation Range of Motion Asymmetry in Patients With Sacroiliac Joint Regional Pain, 1998
"Clinicians should consider evaluating for unilateral asymmetry in range of motion in the hip in patients with low back pain. The presence of such asymmetry in patients with low back pain may help identify those with sacroiliac joint dysfunction."

Capitol Spine & Pain Centers, Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: A Frequent Source of Back Pain
"Up to 40% of low back pain is related to injuries of the SI joint and it's supporting ligament structures. Frequently, SI joint dysfunction co-exists with lumbar disc herniations and lumbar facet syndrome."

Tom LeBlanc, PT
"An ilium can be shifted upward when the back muscles pull against it. This can happen while you’re bending, twisting and lifting. If you bend forward, rotate to your right, then lift a heavy object, the left ilium bone could shift upward, giving you a painful upslip on the left side."

Team Clinic - Sports Medicine
"While it is not clear how the pain is caused, it is thought that an alteration in the normal joint motion may be the culprit that causes sacroiliac joint pain."

The effectivines of SI-joint mobilization

Active Ortho, Greg Specht, PT, OCS, ATC, CSCS; President and CEO, Specht Orthopedic, Inc.

Impairment-Based Examination and Disability Management of an Elderly Woman With Sacroiliac Region Pain, Joseph J Godges, Denisa R Varnum, Kelly M Sanders

Children - Lapsilla:

Mierau DR, Cassidy JD, Hamin T, Milne RA., Sacroiliac joint dysfunction and low back pain in school aged children., Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1984 Jun;7(2):81-4.
"Back pain is known to be very common in adults, but the prevalence in children is unknown. Furthermore, the prevalence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and its relationship to back pain has not been previously studied. In this study, we found a high percentage of school aged children had sacroiliac dysfunction and low-back pain."

Peter Fysh, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, February 11, 1994, Volume 12, Issue 04
Spinal Problems in Young Children, Part I: 0-2 Years
Myös Atlas!

Peter Fysh, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, April 8, 1994, Volume 12, Issue 08
Spinal Problems in Young Children, Part II: 3-10 Years

Peter Fysh, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, January 16, 1995, Volume 13, Issue 02
Spinal Subluxations in Children

Chiropractic for children
Useita artikkeleja

Duke Orthopaedics
"31-40 The cases of seventeen children whose ages ranged from two to eighteen years and who were treated for a disorder of a sacro-iliac joint between 1975 and 1983 were reviewed retrospectively."

M. Drnach, M. Janovich, K. Capdeville, S. Gehring, Physical Therapy, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV., THE PREVALENCE OF PELVIC ASYMMETRY AND SACROILIAC JOINT DYSFUNCTION IN CHILDREN., 2004
"Fifty-three children were recruited from two private schools. Six out of 53 subjects (11.3%) exhibited pelvic asymmetry."

The Journal of Pediatrics
"Studies on healthy children revealed pelvicsubluxations in 40% of all school children, cervical fixation in 15.8%. After manipulative treatrnents,the problems rarely recurred"

Pregnant women - Raskaana olevat naiset

childbirth educator and freelance writer
"-One of the most interesting side-effects of a misalignment of the pelvic bones is that anecdotally, it often seems associated with malpositions of the baby" "-There is little scientific data to show that pelvic misalignment is associated with malpositions because traditional medicine does not recognize misalignment as a problem or research it, nor do they take the idea of "pelvic misalignment" seriously." "-Dr. Showalter expressed great dismay. She was also upset at how many women are told that this pain is normal to pregnancy, and that the only fix is to take some Tylenol and wait for birth. She felt that treatment was very important, and reinforced that back or pelvic misalignment can increase the chances for malposition of the baby."

Dr. Robert White
"Infant spines should be checked shortly after birth due to the twisting, pulling, and tugging that does on during the labor process. Their spines are extremely vulnerable and misalignment can result in such problems as colic, re-occurring ear infections, and later hyperactivity."

PuBMed "After manipulative therapy, 10 of the 11 women (91%) had relief of pain and no longer exhibited signs of sacroiliac subluxation."

PuBMed "Of 862 women who answered the questionnaires, about half developed some degree of low back pain. Seventy-nine women who were unable to continue their work because of severe low back pain were referred to an orthopedic surgeon for an orthoneurologic examination. The most common reason for severe low back pain was dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints."

Victoria C. Arcadi, DC, Sherman Oaks, California
"Low back pain was caused in 78 percent of the women by sacroiliac dysfunction, resulting from the sacroiliac fixation test also know as Piedallu's sign. The patient is examined and one posterior superior spine is lower than the other. "

Dr. Cheryl McFarland, 2004 "Scientific research shows that SI joint dysfunction is the primary cause of pregnancy-related back pain. According to scientific studies, roughly one half of all pregnant women suffer from low back pain."

International Chiropractic Pediatric Association
"The most common reason for severe low back pain was dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints. Physically strenuous work and previous low back pain were factors associated with an increased risk of developing low back pain and sacroiliac dysfunction during pregnancy. "

St. Petersburg Times
"Scientific research shows that SI joint dysfunction is the primary cause of pregnancy-related back pain."

Spine Health
"The most common cause of back pain in pregnancy is malfunction in the sacroiliac joint."

Kenneth D. Erickson, D.C. Irvine Family Health Center Chiropractic Offices
"The most common cause of low back pain during pregnancy is a condition known as “sacroiliac joint dysfunction” or “sacroiliac subluxation”. Subluxation is a Latin term meaning “partial dislocation”."

Journal of the American Chiropractic Assosiation
"More than 50 percent of pregnant women complain of low-back pain during pregnancy, with 75 to 85 percent presenting with sacroiliac pain syndrome. Compared with lumbar pain, sacroiliac pain is four times more likely to persist several months after delivery."

American Family Phycician
"WLL told his newly discovered knowledge concerning sacroiliac subluxation, and the patient agreed to treatment with gentle low-back manipulation. Both the patient and JRH watched with interest as WLL performed the manipulation. After the treatment, 80 to 85 percent of her discomfort was relieved. We would like to dedicate this column to our colleague in New York who opened our years to this condition and its treatment."

CNY Health, Don Janowski, M.A.D.C.
"One of the most common complaints, nearly 85 percent of the time by pregnant patients, is pain in the hip region of the back on either or both sides just above the buttocks. In this region, on both sides lies a joint referred to as the sacroiliac joint. This joint, normally quite stable, becomes significantly relaxed. An increased mobility in these joints can allow it to become subluxated. As with most joints in the body, these joints are pain-sensitive. A misalignment triggers nerve endings in the area and sends a signal to your brain, which often manifests in achy pain in and around the area."

Vancouver Birth Lounge
"When the pelvis is misaligned it may reduce the amount of room available for the developing baby. A misaligned pelvis may also make it difficult for the baby to get into the best possible position for delivery."

Prenatal Chiropractic for Safer and Easier Pregnancies and Deliveries, Dr. Stephanie Bonn BSc,BPHE,DC,FICPA
"A woman’s pelvis supports her growing uterus throughout pregnancy. When the pelvis is balanced the uterus is able to enlarge symmetrically with the baby. An unbalanced/misaligned pelvis will directly affect the way the uterus is supported. Subtle imbalances in the spine and pelvis are due to a range of physical, chemical and mental stresses. This imbalance may torque the uterus which reduces the amount of room for the developing baby and may cause intrauterine constraint."

Kenneth D. Erickson, D.C.
"The most common cause of low back pain during pregnancy is a condition known as “sacroiliac joint dysfunction” or “sacroiliac subluxation”. Subluxation is a Latin term meaning “partial dislocation”. "

Hevosilla

ORSHINA - The Israeli Veterinary Institute for Holistic Medicine
"Vertebral disorders and injuries of the sacroiliac joint have been identified as substantial causes of chronic poor performance in horses."

Synonyymejä SIJD:lle

Leg length discrepancy/unequality - Jalkojen erimittaisuus

PubMed: Krawiec CJ, Denegar CR, Hertel J, Salvaterra GF, Buckley WE., Static innominate asymmetry and leg length discrepancy in asymptomatic collegiate athletes, 2003
"Results showed that forty-two subjects (95%) demonstrated some degree of static innominate asymmetry. In 32 subjects (73%), the right innominate was more anteriorly rotated than the left. Nearly all subjects were determined to have unequal leg lengths with a majority, 30 subjects (68%), showing a slightly longer left leg."

Healthyroads
"True LLI (Leg length inequality) is uncommon and is due to physical length inequality found along the bone of the upper leg (femur), lower leg (tibia), or a combination of both."

UpCSpine.com - Pictures!

Keith Innes, DC, Leg Length Discrepancy, Its Causes, and Its Importance, Dynamic Chiropractic, October 7, 1996, Volume 14, Issue 21
"The sacroiliac joint dysfunctions along its right or left oblique axis."

E. Suter, Ph.D., G. McMorland, D.C., W. Herzog, Ph.D. and R. Bray, M.D., Effects of Sacroiliac Joint Manipulation on Quadriceps Inhibition in Patients with Anterior Knee Pain: A Randomized Control Trial, University of Calgary, Canada
"Chiropractors have long observed that anterior knee pain is associated with sacroiliac dysfunction. (i.e. the low back may or may not be painful). The present study demonstrated that manipulation of these pelvic joints corrects the knee pain.
Twenty-eight subjects were studied. Five had had knee surgery and seventeen had received other treatments such as strengthening exercise or electrotherapy without success. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups – fourteen to a control group which only received a lower back functional assessment and fourteen to a treatment group receiving spinal manipulation to the sacroiliac joints. All patients had sacroiliac joint dysfunction (pelvic joints not moving properly). In the treatment group the knee pain resolved, in the control group there was no significant change. This research was funded by the University of Calgary, the Canadian Chiropractic Association, the College of Chiropractors of Alberta and the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College."

Suter E, McMorland G, Herzog W, Bray R., Decrease in quadriceps inhibition after sacroiliac joint manipulation in patients with anterior knee pain, J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999 Mar-Apr;22(3):149-53.
"Spinal manipulation might offer an interesting alternative treatment for patients with anterior knee pain and muscle inhibition. Because this clinical outcome study was of descriptive nature rather than a controlled design, biases might have occurred. Thus the results have to be verified in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial before firm conclusions can be drawn or recommendations can be made."

Suter E, McMorland G, Herzog W, Bray R., Conservative lower back treatment reduces inhibition in knee-extensor muscles: a randomized controlled trial., J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000 Feb;23(2):76-80.
"The results of this study suggest that SI-joint manipulation reduces knee-extensor MI. Spinal manipulation may possibly be an effective treatment of MI in the lower limb musculature."

Ristiluu

ChiroWeb
"A frequently neglected subluxation component in the pediatric population is the sacral subluxation."

SMT-Dorn
"SUBLUXATION OF THE SACRUM AND ITS CONSEQUENCES LIKE FOR EXAMPLE HIP-JOINT DISEASES, SCIATICA, INCONTINENCE OF MAN AND WOMAN, DISTURBANCE OF BLOOD-CIRCULATION OF LEGS, RISE OF VARICOSIS WITH VENOUS STASIS, VARICOSE ULCER, SYSTREMMA, INGUINODYNIA AND IMPOTENCE."

Subluxations - Subluksaatioista:

SUBLUKSAATIOT, mitä ne ovat?, Lowey Chiropractic Health Center
"A simple definition of the subluxation is a condition in which two adjacent vertebrae have become fixated or restricted in motion, or a misalignment in the vertebrae. This can cause compression or irritation to the spinal nerve creating interference of normal nerve signals in the nervous system. This results in a loss of our normal, healthy balance and ultimately lowers resistance leading to illness."

Shirley Chiropractic -Loistava linkki! Katso slidet 1-25. Loistavat!

Hip joint subluxation - Lonkkanivelen subluksaatio

Orteopedinen Osteopaatti Olli Hakanen
"Nykyään yhä useampi ikääntyvä ihminen joutuu sinnittelemään ns. ”lonkkakuluman” kanssa. "

Kuntohoitaja Timo Maaranen
"Myös lonkissa oli jotain vikaa. Sen saa selville muun muassa tunnustelemalla lonkkanivelen kiertoliikettä, mutta vieläkin helpompaa on tarkistaa jalkojen pituus. Jos lantio ja vartalo ovat suorassa ja jalat näyttävät eripituisilta, syynä on yleensä lonkkien virheasento."

PubMed: Zenios M, Sampath J, Cole C, Khan T, Galasko CS., Operative treatment for hip subluxation in spinal muscular atrophy, 2005
"Thirty patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. Of the nine who underwent surgery only one reported satisfaction and four had recurrent subluxation. Of the 21 patients who had no surgery, 18 had subluxation at the latest follow-up, but only one reported pain in the hip. We conclude that surgery for subluxation of the hip in these patients is not justified."

PubMed: Chan KG, Galasko CS, Delaney C., 2001
"The possible relationship between subluxation and pelvic tilt also calls for better control of sitting posture to prevent pelvic tilt. Spinal stabilization should be carried out at an early age when any scoliosis and pelvic tilt are still mild, so that progressive subluxation of the hip may be delayed or prevented, in addition to maintaining sitting balance and comfort."

Merja Soanjärvi, OMT-fysioterapeutti
"Lonkkanivelen dislokaatio, subluksaatio ja labrumvaurio voivat säteillä kipua nivusalueelle. Labrumvaurion syynä voi olla niin pieni vamma, että urheilija ei pidä tapahtumaa vammana. Oireena voi olla nivuskipu, kuultavissa tai palpoitavissa oleva "klikki" ja lievä lonkkanivelen liikerajoitus."

Sean T. Bryan, MD; John M. McShane, MD; Mark E. Schweitzer, MD, THE PHYSICIAN AND SPORTSMEDICINE - VOL 30 - NO. 11 - NOVEMBER 2002
"Posterior hip subluxation is a possible mechanism in the absence of hip dislocation. Our patient's described mechanism likely involved a combination of axial loading and either internal or external rotation acting on her left hip. Simultaneous axial loading and internal rotation with the hip slightly flexed could cause posterior subluxation of the femoral head. In our patient, these forces could have been high enough to cause trabecular injury and possibly a labrum tear, but not high enough to cause cortical disruption or frank dislocation. "

ORTHOPAEDIC DEPARTMENT, THE ALFRED I. DUPONT INSTITUTE, WILMINGTON, DELAWARE
"In addition to pain the dislocated hip may cause difficulties with the individual's sitting ability and perineal hygiene; and it may contribute to the formation of pelvic obliquity, scoliosis, and skin breakdown."

Keith Innes, DC, Leg Length Discrepancy, Its Causes, and Its Importance, Dynamic Chiropractic, October 7, 1996, Volume 14, Issue 21
"Dysfunction of the hip joint itself leading to compensatory alterations by the joint and muscles that impact on the joint."

SMT-Dorn
"A hip subluxation is a fact , which can be diagnosed at nearly every human being, no matter of age or culture. You certainly cannot imagine, that there are such simple things, which are neither known nor realized by classical medicine. It is a pity, but it is an immutable fact, which everytime can be shown and confirmed in practice."

Duke University, news release, July 2003
"Hip subluxation is a partial dislocation of the joint, where the ball at the top of femur moves in and out of the joint without tearing the capsule surrounding the joint. This injury is different than a complete hip dislocation, where the ball on top of the femur pops completely out of the joint."

Claude T. Moorman III, MD, et all, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2003
"Traumatic posterior hip subluxation is a potentially devastating injury that is often misdiagnosed as a simple hip sprain or strain."

Joseph P Garry, MD, 2005
"Subluxation of the iliotibial band over the greater trochanter may occur while the hip extends from a flexed position (in which the iliotibial band lies anterior to the greater trochanter) to a position posterior to the greater trochanter. This action is most pronounced with sudden loading of the hip joint into a flexed position, such as occurs when landing a jump (eg, dismounting from an apparatus in gymnastics, rebounding in basketball, long jumping in track-and-field competitions)."

Mar Vista Animal Medical Center
Tämä on koirista, mutta täällä on hyviä kuvia! Taas kerran eläimiä on tutkittu paremmin ku ihmisiä...

Shoulder subluxation - Olkapään subluksaatio

PubMed: Boyd EA, Torrance GM., Clinical measures of shoulder subluxation: their reliability, 1992
"These results demonstrate the difficulty of achieving consistent clinical measurement for a condition like shoulder subluxation."

PubMed: Warren RF., Subluxation of the shoulder in athletes, 1983
"In addition, subluxation may develop initially, then progress to dislocation, or the converse may occur. However, some patients may have subluxation over an extended period of time."

PubMed: Gluck BS, Mendelson DS., Shoulder subluxation as a complication of positioning during CT, 1992
"Previously unreported, we note the complication of anterior shoulder subluxation that occurred secondary to patient positioning during chest CT examination. Positioning a patient's arms abducted and externally rotated over the head can precipitate anterior shoulder subluxation in patients with anterior shoulder instability."

PubMed: Carpenter GI, Millard PH., Shoulder Subluxation in elderly inpatients, 1982
"Examination of the plain chest radiographs of 300 patients consecutively admitted to a department of geriatric medicine revealed that 16 patients had subluxation of the shoulder."

American Family Physician, BRIAN L. MAHAFFEY, M.D., PATRICK A. SMITH, M.D.
"The term "shoulder instability" refers to a spectrum of disorders that includes dislocation, subluxation and laxity. Dislocation is defined as complete loss of the humeral articulation with the glenoid fossa as a result of acute trauma. Subluxation is a partial loss of the articulation to the degree that symptoms are produced. "

PubMed
"We report 30 shoulders in 28 patients with this lesion. Nineteen of these patients had been originally seen by other physicians prior to presenting to us and misdiagnosed."

e-Medicine
"Subluxation versus dislocation: A subluxation occurs when 2 joint (articular) surfaces have lost their usual contact. A 50% subluxation means the normally opposing articular surfaces have lost half their usual contact. A 100% subluxation means the articular surfaces have lost all of their contact. A dislocation is the same as a 100% subluxation."

MARC DARROW, M.D., Shoulder Pain
"Sometimes the bones in the shoulder joint slip out of normal alignment or are forced out by injury, a condition known as subluxation—if partial in nature."

Sport Medicinee Advisor
"Symptoms are pain, weakness, or numbness in your shoulder or arm. "

Chiropractic Works, Theodor H. Saylor, D.C., P.C
"In a nutshell - a subluxation signifies when the skeletal portions of the joint are not in their normal physical position of function (this, many times, is small mm of malposition) - but, they are not dislocated."

American Family Phycisian
"A shoulder subluxation or instability involves a temporary, partial dislocation of the shoulder joint."

Scott Orthopedic Center
"The physical therapy rehabilitation for an anterior shoulder dislocation/subluxation will vary in length depending on factors such as degree of instability, acute versus chronic condition, length of time immobilized, strength and range of motion status, and performance/activity demands."

Dr. David Lintner, M.D
"The physical therapy rehabilitation for an anterior shoulder dislocation/subluxation will vary in length depending on factors such as:"

American Physical Therapy Association
"Although they may not be painful, subluxations may, over time, contribute to problems of wear and tear in the shoulder region."

Nucleus Catalog Medical Reference Library
"A partial dislocation where the upper arm bone is partially in and partially out of the socket is called a subluxation. The shoulder can dislocate either forward, backward, or downward. Not only does the arm appear out of position when the shoulder dislocates, but the dislocation also produces pain. Muscle spasms may increase the intensity of pain. Swelling, numbness, weakness, and bruising are likely to develop."

Hacley Hospital
"It should also be noted that a differential diagnosis be made between a brachial plexus injury vs. a shoulder subluxation/dislocation as these injuries can create a dead arm syndrome where numbness and weakness occur in the absence of a cervical injury."

The Bristol Orthopaedic Sports Injury Clinic
"Subluxation of the shoulder occurs when the joint partially dislocates due to ligamentous stretching. Shoulder subluxation may produce a feeling of looseness and instability of the shoulder, particularly when throwing. Alternatively, pain deep within the shoulder when throwing can occur. "

Medictdirect Sport
"Multi-directional instability or hypermobility of the shoulder may lead to subluxation (partial dislocation of the joint). Players often describe a catching sensation or "dead arm" after throwing, especially on over-arm actions."

Pekka Peltokallio, tyypilliset urheiluvammat
American Family Physician
Harward Medical School
SportsMed
e-Medicine
Muita

PubMed: Atlihan D, Tekdemir I, Ates Y, Elhan A., Anatomy of the anterior sacroiliac joint with reference to lumbosacral nerves., 2000